E-bike is one of the extended products of bicycle, it is a special bicycle with battery pack as auxiliary energy, with two wheels, which can realize the function of human riding, electric or electric assistance, and can be driven on non-motorized road.
With a total weight of less than 40kg, the e-bike retains the characteristics of lightness, flexibility and mobility of a bicycle and has the advantages of zero emission, low noise, low energy consumption, low failure, low cost of use, and safety and ease of riding. The electric bicycle has been on the market since the 1980s, improved in the 1990s, and rapidly developed from 2000-2022. As more and more regions pay attention to environmental protection, electric bicycles are attracting more and more attention. E-bikes fall under the category of non-motorized vehicles, and most of them are limited to a maximum speed of 25km/h, which ensures a certain speed and safety. Most of the current electric bicycles have a range of 50-100km on a single charge. According to the survey, the average speed of motor vehicles in urban centers of large cities is 19km/h, and the average daily activity radius of workers to and from work is within 15km, so electric bicycles are perfectly suitable for use in the city and can become a kind of city car.
Electric bicycles can be divided into three main categories: all-electric bicycles, electric-assisted bicycles and all-electric-assisted bicycles. All-electric bicycles: can be pedaled or driven by pure electricity, using the handlebar to control speed and achieve stepless speed change from 0 to 25km/h. Electric-assisted bicycle: With similar operation mode as ordinary bicycle, it can be ridden by human power, or by electric power, without pure electric function. The human power is the main force, and the electric power is supplementary. The size of the human riding force controls the size of the electric current supply to realize the combination of human power and electric power, and the riding feels easy, and when the design speed is reached, the electric power stops supplying. all-electric-assisted bicycles: It is a combination of all-electric bicycle and electric assisted bicycle, containing pure electric drive, electric assisted and human riding.
The basic composition of electric bicycle: electric bicycle consists of five major parts: electric bicycle body, electric drive device (motor), rechargeable battery, charger and control system. There are roughly 3 types of drive methods, friction drive, center shaft drive, and electric hub type. At present, most electric bicycles are electric hub type.
There are four types of rechargeable batteries, namely, small sealed maintenance-free lead-acid batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel-hydrogen batteries and lithium batteries. Small sealed maintenance-free lead-acid batteries have low cost and high capacity, but relatively low service life and safety factor, and are commonly used by some low-end and mid-range e-bike companies. Lithium batteries are high in cost, but high in quality and relatively high in service life and safety, and are commonly used by mid- to high-end e-bike companies.
The functional styles of electric bicycles are now broadly divided into 3 types: standard, multifunctional and luxury.
The daily use of electric bicycles can be summarized as good maintenance, more assistance, and diligent charging. Good maintenance: Don’t let the electric bicycle be damaged accidentally, such as don’t let the water flood the motor center and controller, close the electric door after getting off, avoid storing in high humidity and corrosive environment, and brake should be loose and tight. Multi-assist: the ideal use of “people help the car to move, electricity to help people walk, human power linkage”, save energy and electricity. When starting, use the pedal to ride first, twist the speed control handle in the process of riding, and use the pedal to help when riding on the bridge, uphill, against the wind and heavy load, to avoid impact damage to the battery and affect the battery range and service life. Charge diligently: Use lead-acid batteries, get into the habit of charging on the same day of use, do not wait for the electricity to run out before charging, so as not to shorten the battery life due to “deep discharge”, and do not charge the battery upside down.